We, our community, had that same topic several years back about some urban parks with way too many deer. The nice folks all thought making them steril so they could not reproduce was the answer. They tried it for a couple of years in one park but the herd still grew and the deer grew smaller and looked weaker. It would seem they gave up on it cause last I heard they paid sharp shooters to shoot after dark as many of them as they could.
Now one other suburb went with bow hunting and it’s been going on for ten years now. The city officals thinks it works.
I live close to another city park and my wife and I see deer almost every evening walking through it. I assuming it will be under pressure in the next few years to reduce the herd.
It has easily been at least a decade since I heard talk of white-tail birth control. (At least anywhere near me.) The majority that have been silly enough to try it have obviously failed miserably. I know that around Pittsburgh (and suburbs as well as parks) bowhunting has been successfully deployed for several years. Now that’s what I call “sharpshooters”.